Free research paper example on Hepatitis C: Everyone knows that when they feel sick, that something is not right, they should see a doctor. But what if you could not tell if you are sick, in fact, sick with a virus that will soon enough cause more deaths than AIDS.
HCV is the leading etiological agent for chronic hepatitis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and liver cirrhosis Drexler, et alp. Contamination with infected blood is the leading mode by which the disease is spread to healthy individuals. Sharing of needles or other equipment used by intravenous drug users also is known to be a way of transmitting the disease.
The virus also can be transmitted through semen, vaginal fluid, or saliva of an infected individual, although in rare cases. Prior tohepatitis C was transmitted mainly through organ transplant and blood transfusions CDC, It might take years to decades for hepatitis C symptoms to appear.
For this reason, a number of individuals with the disease become aware of their infection only after considerable damages to the hepatic cells Hicks, Early diagnosis therefore is recommended for the prevention of these damages and to avoid infecting healthy individuals. Epidemiology Target population for hepatitis C is mainly the intravenous drug users who share needles and other equipment for administering their drugs.
According to the World Health Organization, it is estimated that about million people around the world are infected with the virus, which is the leading cause of chronic hepatitis C.
This makes about 3 percent of the population globally Norton, An additional four million new infections are reported annually around the globe, making the disease to be of public health concern Hicks, Symptoms, Co-morbidities, and Complications In the event of acute infection, hepatitis C results in a host of symptoms, including fatigue, loss of appetite, muscle pains, loss of weight, and nausea and jaundice Nelson, et al.
In some patients, hepatitis C infections have been found to occur spontaneously, especially among children and female patients. In the case of chronic infection, it has been reported that about 80 percent of those exposed to hepatitis virus develop hepatitis C Nelson, et al.
In addition, during the initial stages of the infection, most patients experience very minimal clinically important symptoms. Frequently, a number of chronic hepatitis C infections lead to hepatomas and liver cirrhosis. It is approximated that percent of patients end up developing cirrhosis in their early thirties Nelson, et al.
Liver cirrhosis is commonly associated with patients already infected with HIV and hepatitis B. It is also a common problem among alcoholics with reduced liver functions. In addition, patients who develop cirrhosis are more prone to hepatocellular carcinoma.
The risk is even increased fold for excessive alcohol users. Other resultant effects of liver cirrhosis include varicoses, portal hypertension, and jaundice, bleeding and cognitive impairment syndrome, commonly known as hepatic encephalopathy.
At this stage, liver transplant is very necessary. For example, in the case of thrombocytopenia, it is estimated the condition reaches 0. A condition known as membranoproliferatative glomerulonephritis has also been reported in some of the patients with hepatitis C.
Diagnosis A number of diagnostic tests have been developed with the aim of timely detection of the disease. Typical detection of HCV Ribonucleic acid has been made possible using the polymerase chain reactions. This takes place in a period of between weeks after the infection. In the case of chronic infections that occur without symptoms, it is thus discovered in the event of routine screening and during elevated liver enzyme levels investigations.
Testing of hepatitis C starts with blood testing or serology in detecting antibody presence in HCV.According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, ), hepatitis C is defined as a contagious hepatic disease resulting from hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection.
HCV is the leading etiological agent for chronic hepatitis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and liver cirrhosis (Drexler, et al (, p).5/5. The hepatitis C virus (HCV) is transmitted through contact with the blood of an infected person; however, it is now more commonly spread among IV drug users that share needles.
Healthcare workers are also at risk for contracting HCV, but with standard precautions, the risk is low. “Prior to , some people acquired the HCV infection from. PDF | On May 6, , Raveen Parboosing and others published Master of Medicine Thesis (HCV and HIV coinfection in South Africa).
Treatment Outcomes in Substance Abusers. by. Ava Ayana John-Baptiste. Chronic Hepatitis C Viral Infection: Natural History and Treatment Outcomes in Substance Abusers.
Ava Ayana John-Baptiste. Doctor of Philosophy. Graduate Department of Health Policy, Management and Evaluation University of Toronto. 5 Natural History of HCV. Hepatitis C is a liver disease caused by the Hepatitis C virus. The disease can be either acute or a chronic infection, which can be mild or a lifelong disease.
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