Publications Formative Assessment in the Classroom:
Psychiatry, Feb ; For the assessment of depression in older people, it is the scale against which others should be rated. The scale is administered by an interviewer and takes minutes to complete.
The pack is made up of 19 cards with enlarged black print on a white background and are presented one at a time. Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia The Cornell Scale Alexopoulos et al, is specifically for the assessment of depression in dementia and is administered by a clinician.
It takes 20 minutes with the carer and 10 minutes with the patient. It differs from other depression scales in the method of administration rather than in analysis of any different symptom profile seen in depression with dementia compared with depression alone Purandara et al, A score of 8 or more suggests significant depressive symptoms.
It is the best scale available to assess mood in the presence of cognitive impairment. Geriatric Mental State Schedule The Geriatric Mental State Schedule GMSS is one of the most widely used instruments for measuring a wide range of psychopathology in older people in all settings, but most importantly in community surveys Copeland et al, Literature on the GMSS is extensive, and a nelson writing assessment criteria of different factors can be derived from the results.
The GMSS can be administered via a laptop computer, has been translated into a number of different languages, has to be administered by a trained interviewer, and takes about 45 minutes to deliver. The use of the GMSS is limited to research, where it represents the gold standard.
Originally developed for a general population study Radloff,the instrument has been found to be particularly useful in older people.
The scale consists of 20 items and the scoring range is from 0 to A cut-off score of 16 has been suggested to differentiate patients with mild depression from normal subjects, with a score of 23 and over indicating significant depression.
It is a semi-structured interview, requires training to complete, and takes minutes to administer. It is used to assess in all age groups, both for clinical and research purposes, the severity of depression rather than as a diagnostic tool.
It was developed by taking items from a longer scale. It is widely used in treatment trials, in both young and older patients. Specific instructions are given regarding the ratings and there is a comparative lack of emphasis on somatic symptoms, making it useful for the assessment of depression in people with physical illness.
Cut-off scores have been suggested by Snaith et al It is the most widely used measure of cognitive function, and users need some training and familiarisation with the instrument.
The original validity and reliability of the MMSE were based on patients with a variety of psychiatric disorders, the scale successfully separating those with dementia, depression, or a combination of the two. A cut-off score of 23 for the presence of cognitive impairment has been suggested, with variations depending on lack of education.
Mental Test Score and Abbreviated Mental Test Score The Mental Test Score MTS and its abbreviated version are brief questionnaires to assess the degree of cognitive function, particularly memory and orientation; the MTS takes 10 minutes to administer, and the abbreviated form 3 minutes Hodkinson, The MTS was developed from the Blessed Dementia Scale and was used in a study of over patients carried out under the auspices of the Royal College of Physicians in the s.
A score of 25 and above out of 34 is within normal range. From it, the Abbreviated Mental Test Score AMTS was developed, scored out of 9 or 10 depending on whether the optional recognition questionnaire is completed.
The main advantages are its simplicity of administration and the non-threatening nature of the task. The patient is asked to draw a clock face marking the hours and then draw the hands to indicate a particular time e.
This test is particularly useful in the general practice setting. Seven-minute neurocognitive screening battery The 7-minute neurocognitive screening battery is a test for cognitive impairment which aims to distinguish patients with dementia and normal controls Solomon et al, It takes a mean of 7 minutes 42 seconds range minutes to administer by a trained interviewer.
The 7-minute screen consists of four tests representing four cognitive areas affected in Alzheimer's disease: The screening instrument was designed so that it could be rapidly administered by a technician, requiring no clinical judgement or training.
It distinguishes patients with early Alzheimer's disease from those with normal ageing. It is a relatively new instrument and its exact use has still to be established.
Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale The Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale ADAS takes 45 minutes administered by a trained observer and is a standardised assessment of cognitive function and non-cognitive features Rosen et al, The cognitive section of the scale ADAS-Cog is the gold standard for measuring change in cognitive function in drug trials.
The cognitive domains include components of memory, language and praxis, while the non-cognitive features include mood state and behavioural changes.
There are 11 main sections testing cognitive function and 10 assessing non-cognitive features.
Much of the information will therefore already have been gathered, either as part of normal clinical practice or as part of a research study.The reliability of Wikipedia (predominantly of the English-language edition) has been frequently questioned and often srmvision.com reliability has been tested statistically, through comparative review, analysis of the historical patterns, and strengths and weaknesses inherent in the editing process unique to Wikipedia.
Incidents of conflicted editing, and the use of Wikipedia for 'revenge. According to data from the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), only 28% of fourth graders, 31% of eighth graders, and 24% of twelfth graders performed at or above a proficient (i.e., competent) level of writing achievement for their respective grade level (Persky, Daane, & Jin, ).
Nelson Assessment Nelson offers a wide variety of clinical and classroom products designed to help teachers and clinicians identify unique learning skills, cognitive abilities, and instructional needs.
Learning Principles Theory and Research-based Principles of Learning. The following list presents the basic principles that underlie effective learning. The same working memory and reading and writing achievement phenotypes (behavioral markers of genetic variants) validated in prior research with younger children and older adults in a multi-generational family genetics study of dyslexia were used to study 81 adolescent and young adults (ages 16 to 25) from that study.
The Purdue University Online Writing Lab serves writers from around the world and the Purdue University Writing Lab helps writers on Purdue's campus.