Circulatory system Blood is circulated around the body through blood vessels by the pumping action of the heart. In humans, blood is pumped from the strong left ventricle of the heart through arteries to peripheral tissues and returns to the right atrium of the heart through veins.
It then enters the right ventricle and is pumped through the pulmonary artery to the lungs and returns to the left atrium through the pulmonary veins. Blood then enters the left ventricle to be circulated again.
Arterial blood carries oxygen from inhaled air to all of the cells of the body, and venous blood carries carbon dioxide, a waste product of metabolism by cellsto the lungs to be exhaled.
However, one exception includes pulmonary arteries, which contain the most deoxygenated blood in the body, while the pulmonary veins contain oxygenated blood. Additional return flow may be generated by the movement of skeletal muscleswhich can compress veins and push blood through the valves in veins toward the right atrium.
The blood circulation was famously described by William Harvey in During childhood, almost every human bone produces red blood cells; as adults, red blood cell production is limited to the larger bones: In addition, during childhood, the thymus gland, found in the mediastinumis an important source of T lymphocytes.
Healthy erythrocytes have Blood and edition answer key plasma life of about days before they are degraded by the spleenand the Kupffer cells in the liver. The liver also clears some proteins, lipids, and amino acids.
The kidney actively secretes waste products into the urine. Oxygen transport Basic hemoglobin saturation curve. It is moved to the right in higher acidity more dissolved carbon dioxide and to the left in lower acidity less dissolved carbon dioxide About The hemoglobin molecule is the primary transporter of oxygen in mammals and many other species for exceptions, see below.
Hemoglobin has an oxygen binding capacity between 1. The exact percentages vary depending whether it is arterial or venous blood.
However, the CO2 bound to hemoglobin does not bind to the same site as oxygen. Instead, it combines with the N-terminal groups on the four globin chains.
However, because of allosteric effects on the hemoglobin molecule, the binding of CO2 decreases the amount of oxygen that is bound for a given partial pressure of oxygen. The decreased binding to carbon dioxide in the blood due to increased oxygen levels is known as the Haldane effectand is important in the transport of carbon dioxide from the tissues to the lungs.
A rise in the partial pressure of CO2 or a lower pH will cause offloading of oxygen from hemoglobin, which is known as the Bohr effect. Transport of hydrogen ions Some oxyhemoglobin loses oxygen and becomes deoxyhemoglobin.
Deoxyhemoglobin binds most of the hydrogen ions as it has a much greater affinity for more hydrogen than does oxyhemoglobin. Lymphatic system Main article: Lymphatic system In mammals, blood is in equilibrium with lymphwhich is continuously formed in tissues from blood by capillary ultrafiltration.
Lymph is collected by a system of small lymphatic vessels and directed to the thoracic ductwhich drains into the left subclavian vein where lymph rejoins the systemic blood circulation.
Thermoregulation Blood circulation transports heat throughout the body, and adjustments to this flow are an important part of thermoregulation. Increasing blood flow to the surface e. In contrast, when the external temperature is low, blood flow to the extremities and surface of the skin is reduced and to prevent heat loss and is circulated to the important organs of the body, preferentially.
Rate of blood flow Rate of blood flow varies greatly between different organs. Another example of a hydraulic function is the jumping spiderin which blood forced into the legs under pressure causes them to straighten for a powerful jump, without the need for bulky muscular legs.
Openings called tracheae allow oxygen from the air to diffuse directly to the tissues. Insect blood moves nutrients to the tissues and removes waste products in an open system. Other invertebrates use respiratory proteins to increase the oxygen-carrying capacity.Tests and Answer Keys.
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b The sociological perspective is an approach to understanding human behavior by placing it within its broader social context. (4) 2.
d Sociologists consider occupation, income, education, gender, age, and race as.