Please refer to your own notes, handouts, and to the textbook Stern, K. This web page does not include information found in various handouts and related materials e. You will be evaluated over this information as well.
As plants moved onto land, they had to adapt. They had to deal with: How to prevent water loss to environment How to support against gravity How to reproduce These adaptations to land had to do mainly with water conservation Plant Parts Vascular Tissue - Tube like elongated cells through which food and other materials are transported.
Because of this, they must live in damp places.
They have leaf-like, root-like and stem-like parts. Their cells are elongated to better absorb moisture and their leaves have a cuticle to help retain moisture. They depend of osmosis and diffusion to get water through their one cell thick leaves.
They tend to be small plants due to the lack of roots and tissues that would support more extensive growth. Vascular plants like ferns, gymnosperms, angiosperms can live further from water and are not limited in size like the non-vascular plants. Roots absorb materials by diffusion.
Attached to the roots are root hairs, which increase the absorbing surface of the root. At the tip of the root is a root cap, which consist of thick-walled dead cells that protect the growing tip as it pushes through the soil.
Some roots store materials such as starch-like potatoes. Stems - Organs that provide support for growth and contain vascular tissue.
In herbaceous plants annuals the stems are flexible. In woody plants, which live from season to season perinnelsthe stems are rigid and hard. Leaves - Broad flat organ that traps light energy from sun for photosynthesis.
Protective waxy waterproof coating covering the surface of the epidermis of most stems and leaves. Important adaptation in reducing g water loss.
Opening in leaf tissues that controls gas exchange. Tube-like, elongated cells through which water, food, and other materials are transported through the plant — includes phloem and xylem. Reproduction Plant Reproduction All plants can reproduce through asexual reproduction, using single cell cultures, root, stem or leaf cutting, fragmentation asexual reproduction where individual breaks into pieces and each piece grows into a new individual Mosses: Sexual with gametes that must have water Ferns: Seedless vascular plants like ferns produce spores.
Must live in moist environments because they are aquatic organisms for part of their lives. Sexual with gametes that must have water, and asexual with spores type of haploid n reproduced cell with hard outer coat that forms new organism without the fusion of gametes.
The stems of ferns are usually rhizomes, which grow underground. Roots grow from the rhizomes down into the soil. The leaves of the fern fronds grow up from the rhizome and have a cuticle to help retain moisture. Since ferns are vascular not limited in height.
Produce seeds located outside of the plant within a structure called a cone. They are covered in a seed coat, but not covered in a fruit. Conifers have both male and female cones. Male cones are smaller and produce pollen. Female cones contain the ovule and are much larger.
Pollen is transported by wind to the female cones where fertilization takes place. The sporophyte stage is dominant. Conifers have needle like leaves and are evergreen which means that they do not shed their leaves in the winter.
Pines, Hemlocks, Fir, Spruce, etc.Lecture Notes: Set No. 1. Botany or Plant Biology and the Nature of Science. WHAT IS SCIENCE? Science is an organized system of knowledge a obtained by a special method b, the "scientific method", of research and aimed at explaining the causes and behavior of the natural universe c.
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Thanks, Jennifer! SNC2D Biology Review. Cell Theory: all living things are made up of at least one or more cells and their products -the cell is the simplest unit that can carry out life processes SNC2D Grade 10 Academic Science Biology Plant .