Risk factors can be divided into two categories:
This document may be redistributed and reused, subject to certain conditions. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Summary Background Tamoxifen and raloxifene reduce the risk of breast cancer in women at elevated risk of disease, but the duration of the effect is unknown.
We assessed the effectiveness of selective oestrogen receptor modulators SERMs on breast cancer incidence. Methods We did a meta-analysis with individual participant data from nine prevention trials comparing four selective oestrogen receptor modulators SERMs; tamoxifen, raloxifene, arzoxifene, and lasofoxifene with placebo, or in one study with tamoxifen.
Our primary endpoint was incidence of all breast cancer including ductal carcinoma in situ during a 10 year follow-up period. Analysis was by intention to treat.
Results We analysed data for 83 women with women-years of follow-up. Median follow-up was 65 months IQR 54— Interpretation For all SERMs, incidence of invasive oestrogen ER -positive breast cancer was reduced both during treatment and for at least 5 years after completion.
Similar to other preventive interventions, careful consideration of risks and benefits is needed to identify women who are most likely to benefit from these drugs. Funding Cancer Research UK. Introduction Large reductions in contralateral tumours shown in adjuvant trials with tamoxifen suggest that this drug could prevent breast cancer.
Although SERMs have different chemical structures, which can affect their specific activities, they all work by binding to the oestrogen receptor and inhibiting the stimulus for cell division.
A comprehensive review of the mechanisms of action of SERMs has been published. Here, we update previous meta-analyses, with additional data for short-term follow-up of lasofoxifene and arzoxifene, to assess the effect of SERMs on breast cancer incidence. Methods Study selection We searched PubMed with the keywords breast cancer, prevention, selective oestrogen receptor modulator or SERMand chemoprevention.
Table 1 provides details of the included breast cancer prevention trials. We identified nine randomised trials that compared SERMs with placebo or another drug in women without breast cancer, and had at least 2 years of follow-up.
Four trials 5,7,9,11 assessed 20 mg per day tamoxifen versus placebo for at least 5 years in healthy women who were mostly at increased risk of breast cancer. Two trials 13,14 investigated raloxifene versus placebo in postmenopausal women who had either osteoporosis, or had risk factors for or established coronary heart disease.
One trial 18 compared lasofoxifene at two different doses with placebo in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Finally, one trial 20 compared arzoxifene with placebo in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis.
The trials are summarised in table 1. Table 1 Details of breast cancer prevention trials N Treatment groups and daily dose Treatment duration years.Published Evidence Contradicts Medical Advic e.
Most health care practitioners remain unaware that most published medical literature shows breast cancer patients taking HRT actually experienced equal or better survival than patients not taking hormones.
See . Tamoxifen and raloxifene have limited patient acceptance for primary prevention of breast cancer. Aromatase inhibitors prevent more contralateral breast cancers and cause fewer side effects than.
Breast cancer is cancer that develops from breast tissue. Signs of breast cancer may include a lump in the breast, a change in breast shape, dimpling of the skin, fluid coming from the nipple, a newly inverted nipple, or a red or scaly patch of skin.
In those with distant spread of the disease, there may be bone pain, swollen lymph nodes, shortness of breath, or yellow skin. If you’ve been diagnosed with breast cancer, you’ve probably heard a lot of different terms used to describe your cancer.
Doctors use information from your breast biopsy to learn a lot of important things about the exact kind of cancer you have. Using Twitter for breast cancer prevention: An analysis of breast cancer awareness month. Article (PDF Available) For content analysis, we . Question What is the prevalence and clinical significance of estrogen receptor mutation in patients with metastatic breast cancer?.
Findings In a secondary analysis of cell-free DNA from patients enrolled in a randomized clinical trial, 29% of patients () had a mutation in the estrogen receptor.
Patients with mutation had a significantly shorter median overall survival ( months.